Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Untold Stories About Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics That You Need to Read There are many types of communication inside an organization, formal and informal. As long because there is clarity in communication, the target of communication will be done. Understanding your areas of improvement for communication is able to help you identify what things to concentrate on. You are interested in being efficient, and yet make the the majority of your communication prospect. Whispered Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics Secrets Members of a culture can be recognized by the simple fact they share some similarity. Communication is getting more and more complicated to master, because so few individuals actually utilize the 3 forms. Nonetheless, the demand for integration of the distinct cultures proves to be an essential part of development across all the several sectors of development throughout the world. A good medical care provider, who's equipped to put patients at ease with a couple of comforting gestures and words, will unquestionably be an asset to any hospital. Who Else Wants to Learn About Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics? Verbal communication is all about that which we say, which is a significant means of getting our message across. The capacity to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a critical life skill and something which should not be dismissed. When with friends and family, excellent communication skills are required to prevent confusion, miss-communication and fights etc.. One of the fantastic communication skills in relationships is when you and your partner can speak about the little things along with the huge things. Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics Options Your written communications compete with many different messages, and therefore you need to grab your readers' attention and make certain that they get important information as fast as possible. The objective of Communicati ons Planning is to acquire the correct message to the proper folks, in the perfect way. Know just what you are attempting to communicate. Questioning skills are one very important region of verbal communication, often utilised in clarification, but also to extract additional information, and as a means to sustain a conversation. When you're married, every topic needs to be open for discussion. It is possible to then ask questions to make certain that you have, indeed, understood each other. Asking Questions when you're in conversation with somebody, asking questions shows you're interested in them. Type of Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics Even though it seems like it ought to be included in non-verbal communication, HR managers like to differentiate here, as it's a large part of occupational dialogue. Instead, it has to be viewed as a process which involves participants who negotiate their roles with one another, whether consciously or unconsciously. Thus, it is going to be good for the manager to either learn the local language or seek the services of a translator. The Hidden Gem of Cross Cultural C ommunication Essay Topics Totally free Cultural Communication essay samples can be found FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. Totally free Cross Cultural Communication essay samples are offered on FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. The essay isn't the simplest task to master. While each journal samples essay is cost-free, a custom made essay is quite inexpensive. Most Noticeable Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics Cross cultural communication was influenced by various academic disciplines. There are different kinds of communication skills it is possible to learn and practice to assist you develop into an effective communicator. There are many ways, through which an individual, can boost their communication abilities. You ought to be including communication skills on your resume but it ought to be carried out indirectly. The capability to communicate effectively with your team, clients and managers is important. There are, however, lots of things that you could do fairly easily to enhance your communication abilities and make certain that you're able to transmit and get information effectively. There are lots of skills that could help you communicate much better. Communication abilities and having the ability to communicate is among the most crucial of all personal skills. To summarize, cross cultural communication is of importance as it makes it possible for us to appreciate the diversity in cultures and result in social development and thus it ought to be encouraged and practiced. Additionally, among the most important facets of verbal communication is the capability to practice active listening. The dearth of effective communication skills has a negative effect on the personal in addition to professional life of someone. The elements of cross cultural communication is supposedly culturally relevant in the exact same manner the human experience is thought of as culturally relevant. What You Can Do About Cross Cultural Communication Essay Topics Starting in the Next 15 Minutes Communication has become the most important means of expressing any feeling towards any individual or thing. The communication training is necessary for the people working and living abroad to understand how to behave particularly conditions. Likewise consider the emotional state and cultural background of the individual you're interacting with.
Friday, May 15, 2020
 2 MLJ 187 LOH KOOI CHOON v GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA In this case the appellant had been arrested and detained under a warrant issued under the provisions of the Restricted Residence Enactment. The appellant had not been produced before a Magistrate within twenty-four hours of his arrest. He claimed damages but it was held that no action could be brought against the police officer as he was acting in compliance with a warrant issued by a competent authority. The appellant appealed but before the appeal was heard the Federal Constitution was amended by Act A354/76 which provided in effect that Article 5(4) of the Constitution shall not apply to the arrest or detention of any person under the existing law relating to restrictedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It was argued in this case that the Enactment has no provision: (i) for informing the person concerned of the grounds of his arrest and detention; (ii) for presenting him before a magistrate or for an enquiry at which the detained person could meet the allegations against him; (iii ) for review; (iv) for limitation of the period of detention. Because of these reasons it was submitted that the provisions of the Enactment were inconsistent [*31] with the provisions of articles 5 and 9 of the Constitution  2 MLJ 33 GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA ORS v LOH WAI KONG TheShow MoreRelatedShould The Constitution Be Ratified For The Future?978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout American history the constitution has been the framework for democracy. Written in 1787, the constitution was a great conception for the thirteen colonies. Now two-hundred and twenty-eight years later the United States is not a county of freedom fighting European-Americans. In this diverse and modern society concerns have come to surface as to whether the constitution should be ratified for the future to come. Ratifying the constitution sounds like a good notion, but is nearly impossibleRead MoreEssay The Australian Constitution1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Australian Constitution The founding fathers of Australia could never have predicted the society that was to come. However, the constitution- the most important document of the land- stands today with only 8 changes to the words after over 100 years of use. The constitution is not without flaws; the rights outlined in the document are far from clear, which hampers the knowledge of the public about their rights. However, this does not mean that the rights are notRead MoreThe Issue Of The Uk1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIt is quite a complicated question whether the UK really has a constitution in its modern sense. Back in the 18th century it was not even a question; the British constitution was recognized and celebrated for its democratic spirit, particularly by French Enlighteners and some of the American Founding Fathers. But since the Americans have decided to write down their principles of government into a document and to call it Ã¢â¬Å"Constitution,Ã¢â¬ and a lot of other countries, such as the newly-freed Latin AmericanRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of The Judicial Branch742 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAccording to our Constitution we have three separate branches of government, Executive, Legislative and Judicial. The Framers set each branch to have specific powers and jobs but also to help keep each branch using checks and balances. Our Judicial branch was set up to be independent of the other two branches as the judges in this branch deals with different cases of our government is where it interprets the constitutionality of any laws which are OUR AMERICAÃ¢â¬â¢S DEMOCRACY Read MoreThe Declaration Of Independence And The Constitution1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSo what is the Constitution, and what is the history of how it became what it is today? First I will discuss what the Constitution is exactly. The Constitution requires the government to protect our rights. It is viewed as a contract, and we the people have our part of the contract, and the government has their part of the contract. We need to hold the government accountable on what they have agreed to do, in securing our rights. The foundation of what led up to the Constitution is the followingRead MoreThe Main Role As Part Of The Constitution1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Despite the fact that definition and nature of conventions is uncertain it is obvious that they have a significant role as part of UK constitution. To understand how conventions are sufficient as a sources of the constitution it is necessary to discuss their nature first, then continue with analysis on how they operate from a wider prospective and finally, emphasize their strengths and weaknesses. Constitutional convention is an informal agreement which is not signed or codified by any authorityRead MoreA Landmark Supreme Court Case856 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCourt case is one in which a precedence is set and there is an impact on society. There are many reasons for the importance of landmark cases and the studying of such cases. Some of these reasons are to study how the judicial branch works, try to understand how decisions made in the judicial branch affects laws and everyday life, and predict how current issues and cases will be affected by past decisions (The Judicial Learning Center, 2012). There are many examples of Supreme Court cases that areRead MoreGun Control Laws Limit Violent Crime1385 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslook at the absence of a correlation between strict gun control measures and reducing violent crime rates in US states. It is time to ensure that our Constitution is upheld to protect the ideals of American democracy. The proposal of restricting US citizens f rom purchasing firearms is invalid because they are protected to do so under the Constitution, strict government regulations on other harmful products have not been effective in the past, and the idea that gun control laws limit violent crimeRead MoreJustice Scalia Often Uses The Texualist Approach When Arguing925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJustice Scalia often uses the texualist approach when arguing for the text of the Constitution, but sometimes, as Scalia would argue, the text isnÃ¢â¬â¢t straightforward. In R.A.V v. City of St. Paul, Scalia authored the opinion of the Court, in which he argues that free speech is protected under the Constitution, unless it falls under a very narrow set of exceptions. According to Scalia, some content can Ã¢â¬Å"be regulated because of their constitutionally proscribable contents (obscenity, defamation, etcRead MoreExpanding Powers Of Presidency : The United States Government941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPLSC 210 11AM Prompt 2 April 11th, 2016 Professor Armitage Expanding Powers of Presidency The President is regarded as the most powerful individual in the United States government nowadays, with powers expressed in the constitution or congressional act, inferred from the constitution, or assumed by himself. While the executive branch appears the most powerful at current times, most framers had thought that legislative branch would possess the most power. In The Federalist No. 51, James Madison expressed
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A Xicano and The American Dream Is the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ something that is feasible for the son of two immigrant parents? Watching my parents try to climb up the ranks of their job and society, in general, in the most honest way, only to just be met with racist legislation, police brutality, racial profiling, and exploitation, I have come to the conclusion that the American Dream is a fallacy. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen too many people beat and killed by the system; too many people of color systemically beat down and killed. I have had too many friends fall victim to the prison system. I have worked too many years in the strawberry, blackberry, and blueberry fields. I am tired of seeing my people suffer; it is time for me to help. I want to become a teacher and hopefully, someday, become a lawyer. The circumstances that led me to the path that I am on started long before I was born. My father came to the U.S when he was 14 years old. I wish I could say that he was still a k id, but he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬â he was treated like a man. He was expected to work the blazing-hot summer fields and the terribly cold winter fields like a grown man is expected to work. He was expected to provide for his three brothers and three sisters like a grown man is expected to provide for his family. There wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t time to play outside with the other children, paint, draw, or even go to school; there was only time to work and provide. At age 19, he married my mother and they had my oldest sister. He undertookShow MoreRelatedAmerican Dreams : The American Dream1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican Dream? American Dream: Noun, the ideals of freedom, equality, and opportunity traditionally held to be available to every American. That is the definition of the American dream according to Dictionary.com, but the American Dream is more than a definition, but a way of life for many. Millions of immigrants come to our country in search of this Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ including my grandparents but more and more are disappointed. So does the American Dream exist? Has it ever existed or has it allRead MoreAmerican Dreams And The American Dream Essay1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMobility and the American Dream feed off one another, immigrants and American citizens wanting to work hard and building new inventions to make life easier. Without this American ingenuity, it might of taken the United States longer to get to where the country is now. The American Dream has helped people see all the potential that there is in the U.S. Almost all aspects of mobility relating to the American Dream are still achievable. The path to the so called American Dream might be a harder toRead MoreAmerican Dreams : The American Dream1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe American dream is what makes people from all around the world to want to move to America. The American dream is what makes America wonderful. The American dream has been categorized as an equal opportunity to attain success through hard work. The end result of the American dream for the universal people is for that character and their loved ones to be living contentedly for the rest of their lives. However, this is not the same apparition that every individual has of the American dream. The AmericanRead MoreAmerican Dreams : The American Dream1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe American Dream The American Dream is indefinable. There is no one set of words or characteristics that the entire population assigns directly to its definition. With the American population consisting of people of various races, ethnicities, ages, classes, and genders, it seems trivial to even attempt to attribute a single definition to the concept of the American Dream. It is this inability however, to be confined within one single meaning, that allows for the American Dream to govern theRead MoreAmerican Dreams And The American Dream1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmericans have been dreaming since the Mayflower arrived in the New World and the American Dream itself has withstood threats up until this very day to all of its internal characteristics: international peace, health, leadership, wealth, supremacy, and equality. H.W. Brands states in his book American Dreams that Ã¢â¬Å"Americans had dreamed since our national birth, and in the twenty-first century we are dreaming stillÃ¢â¬ . Both BrandsÃ ¢â¬â¢ story and Nathaniel PhilbrickÃ¢â¬â¢s account in Mayflower assist significantlyRead MoreThe American Dream : The American Dream1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The American Dream. The American Dream is made up of many different aspects and ideas. Like moving up the social , escaping poverty , freedom ,equality , pursuing our interests and passions , opinions and safety. Most of the dreams are different for an individual depending on their situation. Poverty is a struggle in life. Not having enough to eat , not having heat and shelter. For the kids , life in poverty is much tougher to overcome than those who already have help with wealth.Read MoreThe American Dream And The American Dream1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn American society, there are many norms that have become essential to citizenship, like owning a home or attending college to pursue higher education. The American Dream drove Americans to improve their living standards and live luxurious suburban lifestyles, but quickly it became evident that in order to achieve the American Dream, people were forced to take on debt. Mortgages, credit cards, and student loans became a part of regular conversation for the middle-class and were crucial to upholdingRead MoreThe American Dream : The American Dream?1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaverage, Americans work 43 hours per week out of a total of 120 hours, take out the recommended sleep time and we work 43 out of 80 total hours . Therefore we work more than half the time in our daily lives. The larger part of Americans believe in The American Dream. so employees believe in working excessively for the chance of being rich, having expensive objects and being successful. The problem The American Dream is getting less and less possible each and everyday. The American Dream is centralRead MoreAmerican Dreams And The American Dream2042 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEvery young American aspires to the American Dream. It is an innate American idealism, encountered by members of every level of society; however, most of all affected by this idealism are those who come from humble beginnings. Those who come from a below average income, the working-class, have much to gain from this American ambition. Sadly, aspirations are in jeopardy. American capitalism does not allow the working-class individual to achieve the American Dream, because of disproportionate economicsRead MoreAmerican Dreams And The American Dream Essay2288 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagestype of fulfillment from the American Dream which prompts them to relay belief in it to the newest generation of Americans. However, nowadays, populations of Americans have become increasingly critical of the American Dream and what that dream entails. That particular group claims that the American Dream is now dead due to many different facets of society. Is it possible to demand the death of an ideal that is essentially the backbone of a powerful country such as American? There are people who argue
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Business Economics Principles for Market Economies. Answer: Gross Domestic Product The Australian economy is one of the biggest mixed market economies globally. The GDP of Australia Comprises of the total market value of all goods and services produced in Australia within a particular period. Generally, the GDP does not take into account depreciation and does not differentiate between the producers of services and goods. However, GDP comprises of only the total value of final products that are produced and sold within a particular period (Gross Domestic Product 2016). For this reason, the inclusion of items such as the purchase of used cars, pensions, and production of meals at home will have significant consequences on the Gross Domestic Product of the country. The Production of Meals At Home Usually, the GDP of a free market economy includes only the products that are sold through the market. As such, it only accounts for the products that consumers are willing to pay prices for the items they consume. For this reason, the GDP often excludes the products that consumers do not pay for. Therefore, the production of meals is usually not included in the calculation and estimation of the GDP of the country. In this regard, the value of outputs that are produced and consumed by households are entirely excluded from the GDP of the country. By and large, the inclusion of the production of meals at home in the calculation of the GDP will have significant effects on the overall GDP of the country. Particularly, the total GDP will be much higher than the actual GDP. Mainly, this is because it would also warrant for the inclusion of other products and services that are sold between households. It is crucial to note that such an increase in GDP will not necessarily indicate economic growth and development in the country. Mainly, this is because there are no substantial increases in the total output of the nation or economic activities but a mere inclusion of household activities (Zorach 2010). Besides, it is very difficult to put values on home services that do not pass through the market, and therefore different values of GDP will be computed in a particular period. Purchase of Used Cars Typically, the calculation of GDP comprises of the total value of products and services that are produced within a given year. Mainly, products that are resold are excluded from the computation of the GDP of Australia. First, this is because the GDP of a country only caters for the products produced within a particular year. Therefore, if the car is produced in one year and sold or resold in another, it is not accounted for in the GDP of the year it is resold. In this regard, including the purchase of used cars in the calculation of Australias GDP will mean that the car is accounted for twice, yet it was only produced once (Janda 2016). As a result, it will increase the current GDP, indicating economic growth and increased production yet this is not the case. It will lead to a false indication of the improvement in economic conditions. Moreover, including the purchase of used cars in the computation of the GDP will result in double counting, thereby leading to an incorrect valuation of the countrys current GDP. As such, before the car is purchased from its original owner, its value was computed and added to the countrys GDP. Therefore, adding the value of the used car again will result in double counting which is incorrect. Besides, such an inclusion will increase the countrys GDP, indicating an increase in production which may not necessarily be the case. Therefore, it is important that the purchase of items be excluded from the calculation of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, or an inappropriately high value will be reported. Pension Pre-funded pension refers to a situation where an employee sets aside a fund in the course of their career. The funds are then invested in by professionals in bonds, stocks, and real estate, among others with the aim that by the time an employee retires the original contributions of the plan will have generated enough to pay benefits for the rest of the employees lifetime (Barr Diamond, 2006). It is noteworthy that pension is not included in the calculation of the GDP. Mainly, this is because they are not treated as payments for goods or services and therefore, do not signify a kind of final demand. Including pension fund in the calculation of the GDP will be a kind of double counting (Pension Spending 2016). Specifically, pension payments are a form of transfer payments that involve the reallocation of money from one individual to another. Also, pension payments do not result in the production of new products or services in a given year. Therefore, unless the recipient of the pension uses the funds to buy goods or services, the pension should not be utilized in the computation of the nations GDP (Nardelli 2015). Including it in the GDP will create a false indication that the country is experiencing economic growth or an increase in the production of goods and services without this necessarily being the case (Pension n.d.). Types of Unemployment Unemployment refers to the phenomenon in an economy where individuals are actively searching for work are unable to find work. Conversely, the unemployment rate is the measure of the prevalence of unemployment within a country. It is measured as a percentage by dividing the total number of unemployed persons with the number of individuals in the labor force. The main types of unemployment include structural, frictional, and seasonal unemployment. Cyclical unemployment Cyclical unemployment is attributed to economic contractions and occurs when the economy experiences downturns in the business cycle. Sometimes, it is referred to as demand-deficient unemployment or Keynesian unemployment. It is imperative to note that this type of unemployment often results from the insufficient aggregate supply in the economy to provide employment opportunities for everyone who is actively looking for work (Diamond 2013). During the economic downturns, demand for goods and services falls significantly, and less production is required. Consequently, fewer employees are required to meet the equilibrium. Source: (Nardelli 2015) Structural Unemployment This type of inflation occurs due to inefficiencies in the labor market. As such, it arises when there is a mismatch of skills required for the available jobs and the skills possessed by workers. Mismatch in skills or geographical location may arise due to occupation immobility, geographical immobility, and technological change. Occupational mobility results when there are jobs available, but the workers do not have the relevant skills to perform the job. On the other hand, geographical mobility occurs where the available jobs are far away from where the unemployed workers live, and it is impossible to relocate to the location of the job. Technological change may result in structural unemployment where the economy goes through changes forcing some industries to decline and reduce production, thereby lay off some workers. A good example of structural unemployment caused by technological change is where an industry fires its employees and replaces them with robots (Amadeo 2016). The workers are forced to retrain for other jobs. It is imperative to note that a prolonged recession in the economy may also lead to structural unemployment. When workers remain unemployed for an extended period, their skills become outdated (Amadeo 2016). Therefore, unless they are willing and able to work at a lower level, unskilled job, they may remain unemployed even after the economy recovers from the recession. (Amadeo 2016). Frictional Unemployment This type of unemployment normally occurs when individuals are searching for work or are transitioning from one job to another. Generally, it arises when workers leave their previous employment and are yet to get new jobs. Notably, frictional unemployment is a natural part of the job search process and only lasts for a short term (Luke 2010). It exists mainly because jobs and workers are heterogeneous, and a discrepancy could result between the characteristics of the demand and supply. Since individuals take time to find the most suitable job for their skills and desires, frictional unemployment is likely to exist within the economy. Classical Unemployment Sometimes, this type of unemployment is referred to as real wage unemployment. Typically, it occurs when wages are kept above the equilibrium level. It is triggered by minimum wage legislations and powerful trade union negotiations that set the minimum wage above the equilibrium wage rate. As a result, there is a surplus supply of labor as more workers are enticed by the new set wages. On the other hand, firms are unable to meet the new minimum wage requirements and decide to lay off some workers. Eventually, this leads to real wage unemployment as wages are sticky downwards (Amadeo 2016). Source: (Amadeo 2016) Voluntary Unemployment Voluntary unemployment occurs when individuals are able and capable of finding work at the prevailing economic conditions but choose not to work. Often, this is ascribed to the view that individuals prefer to wait for jobs that offer a higher wage rate or jobs that match a particular standard that they have set for themselves. When the wage rates are unusually low, the unemployed may have little incentive to enter the job market (Unemployment Types 2010). Seasonal Unemployment Seasonal unemployment arises due to the seasonality of some industries. It is a form of natural unemployment that results from regular changes in the season of business. Industries that may be affected by seasonal unemployment include ice cream vendors, ski instructors or tourism and resort workers (Mortimer 2014). Also, agricultural industries experience seasonal unemployment between the planting and harvesting seasons. Similarly, construction workers are left unemployed during winter in countries that experience winter. Is structural unemployment more or less serious than cyclical unemployment? In most cases, permanent jumps in the rate of unemployment are associated with structural unemployment. Many economists argue that while cyclical unemployment result from rises and falls in the business cycle, structural unemployment persists for long, even when the economy is experiencing substantial economic growth and development (Burtless 2012). Once structural unemployment is embedded in the economy, it is almost impossible to get rid of it (Burtless 2012). Over time, the traditional remedies for unemployment become less effective. For this reason, structural unemployment is more severe than cyclical unemployment. Reference List Amadeo, K 2016, 9 Types of Unemployment [Online] Available from: https://www.thebalance.com/types-of-unemployment-3305522 [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Australian Government Department of Human Services, Age pension. [Online] Available from: https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/serives/centrelink/age-pension [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Barr, N and Diamond P, 2006, The economics of pensions, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 4-16 Available from: https://economics.mit.edu/files/1751 [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Burtless, G 2012, High unemployment: Cyclical or Structural? [Online] Available from: https://www.bookings.edu/opinions/high-unemployment-cyclical-or-structural/ [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Diamond, P, 2013, Cyclical Unemployment and Structural Unemployment. [Online] National Bureau of Economics Research Working Paper 18761. Available from: https:/www.nber.org/papers/w18761 [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Economy Watch, 2010, Unemployment Types [Online] Available from: https://www.economywatch.com/unemployment/types/ [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Econport, 2016, Types of Unemployment [Online] Available from: https://www.econport.org/content/handbook/Unemployment/Types.html [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Janda, M, 2016, GDP: Australian economy grows 3.3pc over past year on secret fiscal stimulus [Online] Available from: abc.net.au/news/2016-09-07/gdp-economic-growth-data-abs-june-quarter/7822286 [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Luke, J, 2010, Frictional, structural, Cyclical Unemployment defined. [Online] Available from: https:/www.google.com/amp/s/econproph.com/2010/08/17/frictional-structural-cyclical-nemployment-defined/amp/ [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Mortimer, R 2014, Seasonal unemployment explained. [Online] Available from:www.romeconomics.com/seasonal-unemployment-explained/ [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Nardelli, A 2015, Unsustainable futures? The Greek pensions dilemma explained [Online] Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/jun/15/unsustainable-futures-greece-pensions-dilemma-explained-financial-crisis-default-eurozone [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. OECD, 2016, Pension spending [Online] Available from: https://data.oecd.org/socialexp/pension-spending.htm [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Parliament of Australia, 2016, Gross domestic product [Online] Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/MSB/feature/FeatureGDP [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016]. Zorach, A 2010, Why GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is a Poor Measure of Wealth and Prosperity [Online] Available from: https://zorach.wordpress.com/2010/08/27/why-gdp-gross-domestic-product-is-a-poor-measure-of-wealth-and-prosperity/ [Accessed 25 Oct. 2016].
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
Abraham Maslow was born in 1908, in Brooklyn, New York. His parents were Jews who had immigrated into America from Russia. They wanted their children to achieve the best in the new world hence they pushed Maslow to succeed in school. Consequently, Maslow found solace only in books after developing loneliness as he grew up.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Biography of Maslow and Start of his Career specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He first studied law at the City College of New York (CCNY) in a bid to satisfy his parents. He moved to Cornell after the first three semesters and then returned to CCNY. He got married to his first cousin, Bertha Goodman, despite the fact that his parents had opposed his marriage to Bertha. Maslow and Bertha got two daughters and then moved to Wisconsin for Abraham to enroll at the University of Wisconsin. While there, he gained interest in psychology as his academic work star ted to improve suddenly . Abraham took some time to interact with Harlow, who was credited for his studies on attachment behavior and experiments with the rhesus monkeys. He continued with his education until he received a PhD in 1934. One year after he had graduated, Maslow went back to New York to work with E.L Thorndike at Columbia where his interest to research on human sexuality continued to grow. While he taught full time at Brooklyn College, his interaction with Europeans who immigrated into the US became significant. Some of the people he interacted with included Fromm, alder, Horney and other Freudian and Gestalt psychologists. Between 1951- 1969, he was the chairman of psychology department at Brandeis. While at Brandeis, Abraham met Kurt Goldstein, author of Ã¢â¬ËThe Organism,Ã¢â¬â¢ who had introduced the idea of self-actualization in his book. This marked the period Abraham began his advocacy for humanistic psychology, which was very important to him. In the 1940s, M aslow came up with one of the most remarkable hierarchies in his career, that of inborn needs. He was a professor at Brooklyn College and his goal was to understand and give explanations to the things that motivated human beings. He did this by combining approaches that existed such as behaviorist, Freudian, cognitive and gestalt approaches to make one theory. He argued that the individual approaches were comprised of reasonable points only that they did not include personality in its broader view. Maslow formulated a theory that argued that the motivation behind the actions of human beings was their needs, which he represented in the form of a five-level pyramid. The most important physiological needs were at the bottom of the pyramid while advanced psychological needs appeared as the pyramid progressively went higher. Maslow invented another field of study at the height of the Second World War, which involved the study of high-achieving individuals who were emotionally healthy. He later referred to them as self-actualizing individuals. He started by analyzing the characteristics of his mentors and the results of his investigations excited him.Advertising Looking for research paper on biography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He recorded in his diary that his thoughts on the self-actualizing man were not of ordinary men who had certain things added, but ordinary men who had lost nothing. He described average men as human beings whose powers were inhibited and dampened. Maslow conducted interviews on individuals who had achieved a lot of things and was surprised to find out that most of them had reached the peak of their lives. They had experienced instances of great fulfillment and joy. In addition, their psychological health increased their happy moments. Most of the individuals he interviewed did not share in conventional religion. The language they used to describe their happiness peaks was virtuall y mystical and was mostly associated with feelings of success and family relations. Maslow published his famous book, Motivation and Personality in 1954. It was a comprehensive synthesis of the many years he had spent advancing theories about the nature of human beings, something that had earned him international recognition. He was very optimistic about human nature and this stirred a lot of interest in the field. He used his position as the head of psychology department at Brandeis University to bring humanistic thinkers such as Victor Frankl and Suzuki to the university to give lectures. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s career continued to grow significantly in the 1960s when employers wanted to get his advice on how to motivate their workers. The approach he used on employee engagement had a significant impact on regions where new concepts were being introduced. Maslow increased the popularity of the term synergy in a bid to explain work teams where the whole was important than all its parts. He argued that it was possible to increase the productivity and innovative capacity of employees if they were urged to fully use their strengths through challenging and exciting tasks . In 1967, Maslow suffered a serious heart attack which forced him to relocate to San Francisco Bay together with his wife Bertha because the climate was milder. Although his health continued to deteriorate, his passion for writing, teaching, consulting and interest in human potential never declined. After his death in 1970, his ideas continued to inspire many people around the world. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Pyramid of Human Needs In his earlier studies of monkeys, Maslow had discovered that the degree of importance of human needs varied. For example, if a people were hungry and thirsty at the same time, they tried to quench their thirst first. It was possible for an individual to miss food for several days. Thirst was therefore considered more serious than hunger. Likewise, if a person was thirsty then got chok ed such that he could not breathe, the need to breathe became important than the need to quench thirst .Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Biography of Maslow and Start of his Career specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Using this idea that some needs were more urgent than others, Maslow came up with the famous hierarchy of needs. Apart from the basic needs such as food, air, water and sex, Maslow expanded the category of needs and included physiological needs, esteem needs, need for love and belonging, safety and security needs and self-actualization needs. Physiological Needs These included needs for oxygen, protein, water, protein, salt, calcium and other minerals and vitamins. They also included the need to have a balanced PH and temperature. Physiological needs also comprised of the needs to rest, be active, eliminate wastes such (CO2, swear, urine) and to avoid pain. Maslow categorized such needs as ind ividual ones whose absence caused individuals to look for them. Safety and Security Needs This second level of needs came in when the physiological needs were adequately taken care of. After these needs were fulfilled, the interest of people was to look for security and protection. Physiological needs were no longer important since the focus shifted to the need for safety and security. The evident of these needs was the desire for individuals to feel safe in their neighborhoods and also have financial security in their places of work. Love and Belonging Needs After physiological and safety needs were fulfilled, the third level started to emerge. Individuals started to feel the need to have friends, children, and affectionate relationships in general. They became increasingly vulnerable to social anxieties and loneliness. The evidence of the needs for love and belonging was the desire of human beings to have families and be recognized by the community members as part of the community . Esteem Needs After the first three levels were filled up, individuals began to look for self-esteem. Maslow identified a lower and a higher version of esteem needs. The lower version comprised of the needs for respect of others, status, fame, glory, attention, recognition and dignity. The higher version was characterized by self-respect needs and a feeling that they were competent, confident, free and that they had achieved. This constituted the higher version which was different from needs such as respect for other individuals. When human beings acquired self-respect, it was not easily lost. The negative side of these needs was seen through inferiority complex and sel-esteem. Maslow reckoned with the proposal made by Adler that these needs formed the basis of psychological problems. In developed countries, majority of the people did not strife to fulfill safety and physiological needs. More often, they had love and a sense of belonging. What proved difficult for them to get was s ome little respect.Advertising Looking for research paper on biography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Maslow referred to the preceding four levels as deficit or D-needs. If individuals lacked something i.e. deficit, they felt the need. But if their needs were completely fulfilled they did not have the feelings of need. This meant that they were no longer motivated to fulfill the needs because they were already fulfilled . Maslow made reference to homeostasis in a bid to explain the four levels. Homeostasis is a principle of operation used by the furnace thermostat. It switches the heat on and off depending on whether it is cold or hot. In the same manner, Maslow explained that when the body lacked a particular substance, it developed hunger for the substance. When it got enough supply of the substance, the hunger disappeared. The homeostatic principle was extended to needs such as belonging, safety and esteem. He argued that the needs were essentially survival needs which were built in human beings genetically. Maslow argued that the development of human beings generally took place in stages which were represented by the various levels. As newborns, people focused on physiological needs. After sometime, their focus was shifted to the need to be safe and secure. Soon after, they started to look for attention and affection. Later, they began to look for self esteem. When people were exposed to stressful situations or life was difficult for them, they changed to needs that were lower in the hierarchy. When individuals lost their jobs, they usually sought little attention. When people had problems in their families and their family members left them, love became their most important need during such moments. Maslow added that the same things occurred to the society. When the society suddenly got into problems, people started to look for a strong leader to lead the society and take things to their normal course. When they did not have food, their needs were more basic because food was a basic need . Maslow pointed out that sometimes human beings were required to ex plain their life philosophies. This involved asking them what their ideal world or life would be like. If people went through serious problems during their development such as extreme insecurity, death or separation of family members and neglect, it was possible for to fixate on such needs throughout their lives. This was how Maslow understood neurosis. For instance, he pointed out that people who experienced separation of their parents wee likely to feel insecure even when they got married. They were constantly afraid of being left because they felt that they were not good enough for their partners. Maslow and the Concept of Self-actualization The level of self-actualization in the hierarchy of needs invented by Maslow was a bit different. He used different terms to make reference to this level. For example, it was referred to as growth motivation instead of deficit motivation and he also named it self actualization. The needs at this level did not require homeostasis or balance. I ndividuals continued to feel them once they were engaged and were likely to become stronger once they were fed. Individuals were characterized by a continuous urge to fulfill potentials and become all that they could become. The needs basically involved individuals becoming the best they could become hence acquiring the feeling of self-actualized individuals (Franken, 2001). For this level to be attained, Maslow argued that it was important for the lower needs to be fulfilled first. If individuals struggled for food, they had to get food first, if they felt unloved and insecure, they had to look for love and security first. He pointed out that with the difficulties that existed in the world, only a small percentage of people attained self actualization. This argument raised a pertinent question of what Maslow really meant by self-actualization. In order to answer the question, he described people he considered to have attained self- actualization through a method he referred to as b iographical analysis. Maslow started by sampling a group of historical people he knew well and people he thought fulfilled the requirements of self-actualized people. Some of the people in the group were Abraham Lincoln, William James, and Eleanor Roosevelt among others. He then carefully studied the biographies of these individuals, their acts and writings and derived qualities that seemingly defined them. These were qualities that were not possessed by the rest of the common people. The individuals were reality centered which meant that they were able to differentiate fake and dishonest things from the ones that were genuine and honest. They were problem centered to mean that they looked at difficulties and problems of life that needed solutions not as troubles that required people to give up on them. They perceived means and ends in their unique way because according to them, the saying that the end justified the means was not always applicable. According to them, the means could be ends themselves to imply that the journey was more crucial than the ends. Self-actualized individuals also related with other individuals in different ways. First, they did not like company since they were happy when they stayed alone. However, they preferred deeper personal relations with selected friends as opposed to shallow relations with a large number of people. They were independent from physical and social needs and were not vulnerable to social pressure due to their nonconformist nature. To some extent, they also had mild humor since they did not want to appear humorous or crack jokes to other people. Maslow pointed out that self-actualizers had a quality he called acceptance of self and others. They accepted people the way they were instead of trying to change them to be the way they thought they were supposed to be. They directed the same acceptance towards themselves since they did not struggle to change their negative qualities. This quality enabled them to achieve spontaneity and simplicity since they did not portray themselves as different people. They always remained themselves. Further, these self- actualized individuals were respectful and had humility towards other people. Maslow described this quality as possession of democratic values which implied that they were not against individual and ethnic varieties but instead treasured them. Again, Maslow called this human kinship which was characterized by strong ethics . Moreover, this group of people was characterized by an ability to discern wonder in ordinary things, a quality Maslow referred to as freshness of appreciation. This enabled them to be creative, original and inventive. Finally, they exhibited a higher degree of peak experiences in comparison with the average people. Peak experiences were experiences that took individuals out of themselves and made them feel very tiny. Such experiences were sought after by many people because they influenced them positively. According to Maslo w, individuals who had attained self actualization were not perfect because he identified various flaws in their characters. First, he found out that they experienced moments of guilt and were anxious at other moments although their guilt was a bit realistic. Some of them exhibited signs of absentmindedness and were extremely kind. Others were characterized by unpredictable ruthlessness moments and loss of humor. The strongest qualities Maslow discovered of the self actualized individuals were that they had natural values which flowed from their personalities effortlessly. They also rose above certain societal dynamics that were deemed undeniable by other individuals. These included differences such as the ones that existed between masculine and feminine or selfish and generous (Daniel, 2001). Discussion of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Work The contribution made by Maslow in personality theories was very significant. In the 1960s to be particular, people had lost faith in the mechanistic message s from the physiological and behaviorist psychologists. They were in search of meaning and purpose in their lives. They possibly looked for higher and mystical levels of meaning. Maslow was among the scholars who tried tirelessly to find the relevance of psychology among human beings and expounded on personality. During the same time, another movement was in place. Some of the things that inspired this movement were the same things that had turned Maslow off. They included computers and information processing, and the rationalistic theories such as the cognitive development theory developed by Jean Piaget and Linguistics by Noam Chomsky. This took root as the cognitive movement in psychology. Criticism of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Work Although Maslow made significant contributions in the field of psychology, his work was not without criticism. The most common criticism was in relation to the methodology he used to conduct his study. It was argued that Maslow picked a few individuals he consi dered to have attained self-actualization then read about them and came up with conclusions regarding what self-actualization was. This was not credible science to most people. However, he knew this in his study and hoped that others would take over what he had started and expand his work. People were curious that Maslow who founded American Humanism had begun his career in the field of behaviorism with a strong inclination to physiology. He was not indeed a believer in science and often biology formed the basis of his ideas. The other reason why the work of Maslow was criticized was that he complicated the concept of self-actualization so much. Self-actualization had been described by Kurt and Carl Rodgers as what every living creature did including growing and fulfilling its biological destiny. Maslow limited this definition into something that was achieved by only two percent of the living things. The argument by Rodgers that babies were an apt example of self-actualization was r efuted by Maslow by saying that children rarely attained self-actualization . Maslow argued that individuals fulfilled their lower needs before they attained self- actualization. This was questioned because there were many examples of individuals who had achieved self-actualization yet their low level needs had not been fulfilled. Many known people had experienced poverty, depression, bad upbringing and other traumatizing experiences as they grew up. It was questionable if all these individuals never portrayed some form of self actualization. References Boeree, G. (2006). Abraham Maslow: 1908-1970. Web. Carducci, B. (2009). The Psychology of Personality:Viewpoints, Research, and Applications. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. Daniel, M. (2001).MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Concept of Self-actualization. Web. Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories: An Introduction. Washington: Cengage Learning. Ewen, R. (2003). An introduction to theories of personality. New Jersey: Routledge. Franken, R. (2001).Human M otivation. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Goble, F. (2004). The Third Force: The Psychology of Abraham Maslow. New York: Maurice Bassett. Hoffman, E. (2011). The Life and Legacy of Abraham Maslow. Web. Huitt, W. (2007). MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta. Web. Schultz, D., Ellen, S. (2011). A History of Modern Psychology. New York: Cengage Learning. 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Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Women, Inequality and Poverty essays We are concerned about the direction of Canadian equality rights jurisprudence, the positions being advanced by governments in equality rights litigation, and the apparent unwillingness of the courts to be a counterbalancing influence when governments ignore women's interests and voices. How courts treat the relationship between the right to equality and economic policy is important because of its potential impact on women. What courts say about rights also influences the understanding people have of their relations to others, and how governments view their roles and responsibilities. - Shelagh Day and Gwen Brodsky. There is a specific disconnection between the social policies that are affecting womens lives and the commitments that have been made, domestically and internationally, to the equality of women. If women are to advance then economic and social policies need connect with womens right to equality. Many Canadians are suspicious of the poor, very quick to judge men and women to be the ones at fault for their own misfortunes. There are significant differences that exist regarding the gender nature of poverty in Canada and the impact of social welfare policies on women. Many reports have shown that women continue to be more vulnerable to poverty than men (Gunderson et al. 1990; Harman 1992). This paper will give background on why women face poverty at a higher percentage than men, the issues facing women in poverty and what are the legal protections that are offered for those living in poverty in Canada. Also, I will analyze Poverty, Income Inequality, and Health in Canada by Dr. Dennic Raphael. In my opinion, if we live in a democratic country with equal rights for both genders then this issue should not exist in the first place. Poverty does not only take away a home from women and children but it is also linked to health. If poverty causes such suffering and even death then it is import...
Monday, February 24, 2020
EXAMINE THE DISTINCTIVE PROBLEMS THAT DEVELOPMENT NGOs ENCOUNTER - Essay Example The spheres of work of development NGOs are diverse, encompassing humanitarian relief, long-term development, policy formation and political advocacy (Atack 1999). The only common element among all NGOs is that they are not a part of the government (Tandon 2001). Development NGOs play an important part in determining the form taken by civil society. They also support advocacy NGOs, unions, social movements, interest groups and research institutions among others (Clark 2006). Nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) Ã¢â¬Å"have become increasingly important agents of the development process in the countries of the SouthÃ¢â¬ (Atack 1999, p.855). To meet the standards of legitimacy, development NGOs are required to meet four critieria: representativeness, distinctive values, effectiveness and empowerment. From the middle of the 1990s, with the recession hitting industrialised countries, less money was available for the funding of development NGOs. An example is the cutting off of funds to South African NGOs by international benefactors, who assumed that the new democratic government of the country would fund them. Due to lack of adequate finances, development NGOs may spread themselves too thinly with respect to sectors, objectives or geography. Also, mismanagement and seepage from programme funds occur frequently (Lynch and Modgil 1997), resulting in reduced financial strength. Edwards and Fowler (2002) support the view that development NGOs face complex challenges constantly, since funding is unpredictable, social change is complex, guidance availability is low, and there is no single measure for success. For effective functioning, NGOs should develop their management capabilities. In the case of NGOs involved in development education the main challenges include the need for renegotiation and accurate definition of development NGOsÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship with the state. This is because the independence of the developmental NGO may get